Pasteurization with emerging technologies process intensification
- 1 General information
- 2 Description of technology, techniques and methods
- 3 Changes in the process
- 4 Energy saving potentials
- 5 Changes in the energy distribution system
- 6 References
Pasteurization is a controlled heating process used to eliminate any dangerous pathogens that may be present in milk, fruit-based drinks, some meat products, and other foods which are commonly subjected to this treatment. Pasteurization inactivates most viable vegetative forms of micro-organisms but not heat-resistant spores. As well as the application to inactivate bacteria, pasteurization may be considered in relation to enzymes present in the food, which can be inactivated by heat. Pasteurization is used to treat all types of food products. These include milk, juices, beer and many others
(European Commission 2006)
Further Information: Pasteurization in food industry
Description of technology, techniques and methods
High Pressure Processing
High pressure processing can be us as a food preservation technique. There is important effects on microorganisms. With 10-50 MPa decrease the rate of reproduction and growth and high pressure deactivation (~500 Mpa) is also possible. Effective combination with thermal treatment especially for bacterial spores.
(Muredzi, 2012; Tao, Sun, Hogan, Kelly, 2014)
Further Information: HPP
Effective method for decontaminating food while conserving high product quality. Reduced energy consumption; it has a higher heating capacity and a shorter response time compared with conventional thermal methods.
(Pan, Atugulo & Li, 2014)
Further Information: infrared
Pasteurization processes with microwave technology has a special relevance for solid and semi-solid materials in terms of pasteurization and sterilization avoiding high levels of degradation. (Muredzi, 2012) The technology has been on and off for over 30 years, mainly in the industries of yoghurt and milk. (Muredzi, 2012) It is effective in the destruction of microorganisms or inactivation of enzymes through its thermal effect (Ozkoc, Sumnu & Sahin 2014)
Further Information: microwaves
One of highest potential of plasma technologies in the food industry is in the pasteurization process because of the effect of simultaneous inactivation mechanisms:
- Direct interaction cells with reactive species and charged particles.
- UV damage of cellular components and membranes.
- UV-mediated DNA strand breakage.
Further Information: plasma
Pulse Electric Field
PEF in pasteurization is most effective with vegetative bacteria, yeast and molds, enabling up to 70% more yield than conventional methods and additional to the benefits of avoiding high temperatures and long processing times.
Further Information: PEF
Radio Frequency Technology
The pasteurization process through radiofrequency heating enable time temperature regimes that are milder than conventional heating techniques. Potentially selective killing of microorganisms. Better quality in terms of color and taste. *Potential for the avoidance of chemical treatments.
(Orsat & Raghavan; 2014)
Further Information: radio frequency
The technology can be used as replacement for conventional pasteurization where the precipitation does not occur. Stability increase of food is also possible. There is a reduction in cost compared with conventional methods due to reductions in the operation time. It has a high potential in the dairy industry.
(Barukčić et al. 2015)
Further Information: ultrasound
Changes in the process
Energy saving potentials
A main application of this synergy is towards a better quality or fresh product and for some cases, the priority is to enhance quality even if it cost more energy. The energy saving of this technologies lies in the synergy with conventional thermal processing overcoming processing limits by the use of the edge of each emergent technology (pressure, radiation, movement) and also due to a potentially more controlled and tailored pasteurization process.
Changes in the energy distribution system
Increasing electric energy consumption and potential decrease on thermal energy use.
- Barukčić, I., Jakopović, K., Herceg, Z.,Karlović, S., Božanić, R. (2015) 'Influence of high intensity ultrasound on microbial reduction, physico-chemical characteristics and fermentation of sweet whey', Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 27(February), pp. 94-101.
- Muredzi, P. (2012) 'Chapter 1: High pressure processing technology', in Aleman, M. (ed.) Emerging Non-thermal Food Processing Technologies. USA: CBH books, pp. 19-57.
- Muredzi, P. (2012) 'Chapter 2: Pulse Electric Field processing', in Aleman, M. (ed.) Emerging Non-thermal Food Processing Technologies. USA: CBH books, pp. 19-57.
- Muredzi, P. (2012) 'Chapter 8: Microwaves and radiofrequency processing', in Aleman, M. (ed.) Emerging Non-thermal Food Processing Technologies. USA: CBH books, pp. 167-194.
- Niemira, B. (2014) 'Part III: Other non-thermal processing techniques: Chapter 18: Decontamination of food by Cold Plasma', in Sun, D. (ed.) Emerging Technologies for Food Processing. UK: Academic Press, pp. 327-332.
- Orsat, V., Raghavan V. (2014) 'Part IV: Alternative thermal processing: Radio Frequency Processing', in Sun, D. (ed.)Emerging Tehcnologies for Food Processing. UK: Academic Press, pp. 385-398.
- Ozkoc S., Sumnu G., Sahin S. (2014) 'Part IV: Alternative thermal processing: Chapter 20 Recent Development in Microwave Heating', in Sun, D. (ed.)Emerging Tehcnologies for Food Processing. UK: Academic Press, pp. 361-377.
- Pan, Z., Atugulo, G., Li, X. (2014) 'Part IV: Alternative thermal processing: Chapter 25 infrared heating', in Sun, D. (ed.)Emerging Tehcnologies for Food Processing. UK: Academic Press, pp. 361-377.
- Tao, Y., Sun D., Hogan E., Kelly, A. (2014) 'High pressure processing', in Sun, D. (ed.)Emerging Tehcnologies for Food Processing. UK: Academic Press, pp. 3-20.