Bleaching with emerging technologies process intensification
The objective of bleaching is to remove pigments, metals, e.g. nickel or iron from other oil refinery process; residual soaps and phospholipids from the oil or fat. Bleaching is applied in the refining of edible oils and fats and also in fruit and vegetable canning.
(European Commission, 2006)
Further Information: Bleaching in food industry
Description of technology, techniques and methods
High Pressure Processing (HPP)
The technology enables colour retention on Vegetables and Fruits (orange and Tomato Juices, Fruit Jams). However, there are storage issues due to incomplete enzyme inactivation. High effect on meat and meat Products (Presence of Myoglobin in Muscles avoiding oxidation). Some affecting factors are water content, low temperature and high pH protect colors.
(Muredzi, 2012; Tao, Sun, Hogan, Kelly, 2014)
Further Information: HPP
Pulse Electric Field (PEF)
Color extraction can be achieved at a lower temperature. Preservation of color is also a highlight.
(Toepfl, Siemer, Heinz, 2014)
Further Information: PEF
Changes in the process
Energy saving potentials
The energy savings enables by the new technologies are related to avoid bleaching due to the high conservation of colors and the less damaging processing.
Changes in the energy distribution system
The equipment used for bleaching consists of mixing vessels, vacuum generators and filters (European Commission, 2006). The use of the new techniques may imply a higher demand of electricity, but lower/more efficient use of materials. This brings more opportunities for the implementation of electricity generation from renewable energy and cleaner processing.
- European Comission (2006) Best Available Techniques (BAT) in the Food, Drink and Milk Industries. Reference Document : Best Available Techniques [Online]. Available at: http://eippcb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/reference/BREF/fdm_bref_0806.pdf (Accessed: 20th Ferbruary 2015).
- Muredzi, P. (2012) 'Chapter 1: High pressure processing technology', in Aleman, M. (ed.) Emerging Non-thermal Food Processing Technologies. USA: CBH books, pp. 19-57.
- Tao, Y., Sun D., Hogan E., Kelly, A. (2014) 'High pressure processing', in Sun, D. (ed.)Emerging Tehcnologies for Food Processing. UK: Academic Press, pp. 3-20.
- Toepfl S., Siemer, C., Heinz V. (2014) ' Part II: Chapeter 8 Pulse Electric Field processing, in Sun, D. (ed.)Emerging Tehcnologies for Food Processing. UK: Academic Press, pp. 147-