Cooking & boiling with emerging technologies process intensification

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General information

Cooking and boiling are heat processing techniques applied to foodstuffs to alter the texture, colour and moisture content of the food, or to facilitate other later processes. Cooking and boiling are applied on an industrial scale for the preparation of ready-to-eat products, in the preparation of complete meals, for meal components (such as in various meat products or through heating of the foodstuffs in processing.

(European Commission 2006)

Further Information: Cooking in food industry

Description of technology, techniques and methods

High Pressure Processing

The technology enables a cooking process of meat products resulting with a lower fat and salt content than in conventional processes (200 MPa, 2 min.). It retains its expected functional quality attributed of objective texture, color and rheological property. Also, it is achieved with a marked reduction in cooking loss when cooked thus providing the manufacturer with greater product yield (Yang et al. 2015).

Further Information: HPP

Infrared Technology

  • IR technology enables rapid cooking processing times with an enhanced product quality and a reduction in energy consumption.
  • Important synergies with microwaves and hot air technologies.
  • Relevant roosting applications tasted for coffee already.
  • Lower initial investment cost compared with electrical cooking.

(Pan, Atugulo & Li, 2014)

Further Information: infrared

Microwave technology

The technology enables short heating times. Combined with infrared radiation and other thermal techniques represent a great synergy. It reduce the processing time while retaining the level of quality compared with conventional processes.

(Ozkoc, Sumnu & Sahin 2014)

Further Information: microwaves


Nanotechnology can enable a designed texture of food, being especially relevant for meat substitutes. Solution of growing population a growing demand of proteins. Alternatives sources of proteins as leaf proteins or insect proteins (Nieuwland et al. 2014).

Further Information: nanotechnology

Ohmic heating

The technology enables sensorial quality retention and a higher cooking yield. More uniform, lighter and browner color in general is possible with the technology. Inhibition of microbial growth is possible.

(Goullieaux & Pain 2014)

Further Information: Ohmic

Radio Frequency technology

Cooking procedures for meat with appropriate package and container lowered 42% in cooking time in a RF oven with respect to cooking time in a water bath. Quality of RF cooked meat was similar to the quality of water bath cooked meat.

(Kirmaci & Singh 2012)

Further Information: radio frequency

Changes in the process

Energy saving potentials

The technologies offer potential to accelerate cooking process. This can lead to a decrease on energy consumption per unit produced depending on the technology implementation and the conventional cooking procedure. In some cases, the development of new processes is targeted and the energy saving potentials is not targeted.

Changes in the energy distribution system

All the technologies enable electricity as the primary source of energy. This enables new sources of energy that are easily transform to electricity to power the operation.


  • Goullieaux A., Pain J.P. (2014) 'Part IV: Alternative thermal processing: Chapter 22 Recent Development in Microwave Heating', in Sun, D. (ed.)Emerging Tehcnologies for Food Processing. UK: Academic Press, pp. 361-377.
  • Kirmaci, B., Singh, R. (2012) 'Quality of chicken breast meat cooked in a pilot-scale radio frequency oven', Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 14(April), pp. 77-84.
  • Ozkoc S., Sumnu G., Sahin S. (2014) 'Part IV: Alternative thermal processing: Chapter 20 Recent Development in Microwave Heating', in Sun, D. (ed.)Emerging Tehcnologies for Food Processing. UK: Academic Press, pp. 361-377.
  • Pan, Z., Atugulo, G., Li, X. (2014) 'Part IV: Alternative thermal processing: Chapter 25 infrared heating', in Sun, D. (ed.)Emerging Tehcnologies for Food Processing. UK: Academic Press, pp. 361-377.
  • Nieuwland, M.; Geerdink, P.; Brier, P.; Eijnden, P. van den; Henket, J.T.M.M.; Langelaan, M.L.P.; Stroeks, N.; Deventer, H.C. van; Martin, A.H. (2014) 'Reprint of "Food-grade electrospinning of proteins', Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 24(), pp. 138-44.
  • Yang, H., Han, M., Wang, X., Han, Y., Wu, J., Xu, X., Zhou, G. (2015) 'Effect of high pressure on cooking losses and functional properties of reduced-fat and reduced-salt pork sausage emulsions', Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, In Press, Accepted Manuscrip, Available online 18 March 2015.