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- PI as a method of optimization technology
The current developments of the rising commodity prices of energy and other raw materials give great occasion to think about technologies that minimize the energy and capital costs of the business processes, thoughts. With these developments, a quick and broad application of innovative process intensification , the consumption of raw materials can be minimized. Earlier it was with PI often a reduction of the company and its processes (planning miniaturization) (eg, by merging of process steps, substitution by new technologies, etc.) linked and this is still a hallmark of PI.
By reducing the size of equipment and when the safety of processes is greatly increased, as eg in the processing of hazardous substances by the smaller plant size, smaller amounts come at once for use in hazardous situations and thus the potential of an explosion or fire, etc. is reduced. In addition to the miniaturization of the process units and the increase in process reliability ,PI plays a significant role in improving the quality and reducing the costs of energy use, material use and waste .
In PI , the limiting factors (eg heat transfer, heat conduction) can be overcome by use of Emerging Technologies. Processes which increase process efficiency, by exploiting synergies between processes and targeted process control are more efficient "Producing much more with much less " can occur in smaller devices. Such optimization technology creates great potential for process efficiency improvements and the integration of renewable energies in the processes is made possible reinforced. PI thus contributes significantly to sustainable production.
- Figure 1 Process Intensification- An overview
In addition to system optimization and optimization technology, it is another approach to reducing energy and resource consumption, especially of fossil fuels. The use of renewable resources offers the possibility, especially in the provision of energy to conserve resources and reduce the consumption of non-renewable.
- PI principles and strategies
The goal of PI is to achieve optimal function of the process . Four basic principles are taken into account :
- 1. "Maximize the effectiveness of intra-and intermolecular events
- 2. Give each molecule the same processing experience
- 3. Optimize the driving forces on every scale and maximize the specific areas to Which Those driving forces apply
- 4. maximize the synergistic effects from events and partial processes"
In order to obtain an optimized and enhanced process, three different PI strategies that are not expected to be independent and can be integrated with each other,have to be pursued:
- 1. minimize the equipment size: merging of two or more process steps through the use of synergy effects to a new or equipment that allow to combine several functions in one step; and structures (eg, structured tower floors) in apparatuses lead to smaller equipment sizes
- 2.maximize process efficiency: among other things, Reduce energy consumption and increase throughput / productivity through improvements or overcoming limitations in mass and heat transfer, eg by the use of new forms of energy (microwaves, infrared radiation, etc.) by selective application of energy to a particular molecule or particle, or through the use of structures (structural floors in distillation columns)
- 3. maximize process control: among other things, Change from batch processes to continuous processes, enhancing quality)
As the use of ET is an essential criterion for obtaining PI and a consideration of such ET for selected processes is essential.
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